Kidney stones, medically known as renal calculi, are solid crystallised deposits of minerals and salts that build up in the kidneys. Though they are primarily found in the kidneys, they can also develop anywhere along the urinary tract, like in the urethra and bladder. There are many different causes of kidney stones, resulting in different types of calculi. Kidney stone can be extremely painful, both before and during their passing. However, they normally do not cause any lasting damage to the tract if caught in time. In most cases the appropriate treatment that kidney stones need is simply proper hydration and perhaps pain medication if the pain is unbearable. Unfortunately, in many cases the kidney stones may cause complications like a urinary tract infection, requiring more advanced treatment.
If you believe you have kidney stones and they are causing you a great amount of pain, you should consult a physician immediately to determine what the appropriate treatment is. We recommend these urologist in Lahore, for those of you in that city.
Types of Kidney Stones:
As mentioned earlier, different causes result in different types of kidney stones, characterised by the different chemicals that primarily make up the crystal calculi. These types include:
This is the most common kind of kidney stone, primarily made up of the compound calcium oxalate. Consuming food with large amounts of calcium oxalate can result in the formation of these stones. Foods high in the compound include potato chips, beets and spinach. There is a contradiction though, because having a certain amount of calcium can help prevent the formation of the stones.
This type of kidney stone is mostly found in women that have urinary tract infections. These stones are quite large and can obstruct the urinary tract. Treating the urinary infection can help prevent further development of the stones.
This type is more common in men than in women, and are more likely to develop in people with gout or those going through chemotherapy as well. This develops when urine becomes too acidic, potentially from the consumption of a component of animal proteins known as purine. Purine is present in fish and meats.
Kidney stones normally don’t cause any symptoms until they move around or enters the ureters from the kidneys. They can potentially block these tubes, resulting in backflow of the urine into the kidneys, which can be very painful. The symptoms one might experience from having kidney stones therefore include:
- Sharp pains in the back, lower abdomen, and groin
- A burning or painful sensation when urinating
- Pink, red or brown urine that smells bad
- Urine that appears cloudy
- Nausea and vomiting
- Difficulty urinating
- Short periods between urinating
Some of the most common and serious complications of kidney stones include:
- Severe infections like septicemia (an infection of the blood), which could be life-threatening
- Renal scarring or damage to renal tissue could result in permanent kidney dysfunction
- Severe damage to a kidney resulting in its complete loss of function, requiring its removal (nephrectomy)
- Blockage of the bladder due to a large kidney stone can result in extremely painful urinary retention
If you have noticed any of the symptoms we listed above, you should visit a doctor immediately. The diagnosis may not be kidney stones as there is a lot of overlap with other conditions, but a diagnosis for severe symptoms is necessary. We recommend these Best urologist in Karachi, for those of you that require one in that city.